KinoKultura: Issue 57 (2017)

Cinema in Yakutia, or Sakha-Cinema

By Sardana Savvina

Today Yakut cinema develops rapidly. Ten to fifteen feature films are shot every year, the majority of them by independent film studios. Experts call it the Yakut film-boom and closely watch the development of Yakut cinema.

The republic Sakha (Yakutia) is one of the largest regions of the Russian Federation, located in the Northeast of the country. Sakha is the self-given name of the people to our region, while Yakutia is the name that has come from the Russian language. A large art of the territory of the republic is in the Arctic and occupies almost one fifth of Russia. Although the size of the territory is very large—it occupies more than 3 million square kilometers, the population of the republic is minute, with just under a million (950,000 people).

The climate in Yakutia is continental. In the winter the temperature reaches up to –60 C and +40 C in summertime. Temperature changes thus extend over almost 100 degrees Celsius. The region is known as the territory with the coldest climate: there is a Cold Pole, the village Oimyakon, where the temperature drops to –72 C. Almost the entire territory of Yakutia is under a thick layer of permafrost, which influences both climate and the natural phenomena in the region.

The republic’s basic ethnic structure consists of the Sakha people (470,000 in total). There are also 350,000 Russians, and the rest are Ukrainian, Tatars, migrants from Central Asia and small ethnic people of the North, such as the Even, Evenk, Chukcha and Yukagir people.

The Yakut language is the official state language in the Republic, alongside Russian. The language belongs to the Turkic group of languages and is related to Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Turkish. In the dictionary of the Yakut language there are also Mongolian words and words from the ethnic people of the far north.

The belief is close to Tengrism and consists of the veneration of the god Aiyy, the worship of the sun, and the forces of nature. With the arrival of Russians in the 17th century, Orthodoxy was brought onto the territory of Yakutia. Nevertheless, despite the influence of Orthodoxy, the Yakut people have kept their faith, and now in everyday life, along with bilingualism, there is a dualism of religions and cultures: thus, for example, already in the 17th and 18th centuries, in connection with the mass christening of the population by orthodox priests, Russian surnames and names have widely spread in Yakutia. And the Yakut national holiday Ysyakh (or Ysekh) in honor of summer solstice is celebrated by all people in Yakutia. 

Ysyakh is an archaic holiday described in the ancient Yakut epos “Olonkho,” an oral narration of the myths and legends of our ancestors, which lies at the heart of the Yakuts’ outlook on life and faith. “Olonkho” has parallels with Greek and other mythologies that describe the world order and set up a pantheon of gods. We believe that the Universe consists of three worlds: the upper, the middle and the lower world. The Aiyy deities inhabit the upper world, whose pantheon is crowned by the god Urun Aar Toyon. The Aiyy deities are placed on nine levels of the sky. People who revere Aiyy—that is, people sent by the gods—live in the middle world. They live according to divine laws in agreement and harmony with nature and the world around. The forces of evil live in the bottom world; they attack and try to harm the inhabitants of the middle world. The epic narratives describe the fights of the great warriors—Booturs against Abaahi (demons of the bottom world). In this struggle the people are supported by spirits and forces of nature, shamans, warriors of the upper world and the Aiyy deities. The three worlds of Yakut mythology are connected by the tree of the world, Aal Luuk Mas, whose branches extend into the world of deities, whose trunk occupies in the middle world, and whose roots reach into the bottom world. This mythology finds reflection in the culture and the art of the Sakha people.

The laurel of oral Yakut national heritage is the “Olonkho.” In the long winter evenings, for many weeks, the Olonkho-teller (olonkhosut) colorfully performs the epos, amazing the imagination of the listeners with the fantastic world of Olonkho.

The content of Olonkho was passed on by word of mouth through different performers into the 19th century, when for the first time local writers transformed the oral narrative into written literature. The founders of Yakut literature are Aleksei Kulakovskii, Platon Oiyunskii, and Anempodist Sofronov, among others. Following the advent of literature, the 20th century saw new art forms being introduced to Sakha culture: theatre, fine arts and music. This became the basis for the subsequent emergence and development of Yakut cinema.

The advent and development of Yakut cinema
The first film screenings in the city of Yakutsk took place at the end of 1911, while regular sessions began from 1912 onwards, thanks to the businessmen Vasilii P. Priiutov and Panteleimon I. Nikulin. The first film shoots were carried out by a French group in 1913 and they concerned archaeological excavations near Yakutsk. The destiny of this footage remains unknown. In August 1928 the inhabitants of Yakutsk could for the first time see in on a cinema screen footage of views of the city shot by the amateur Ya. S. Shmakov in 1927.

In the beginning of the 1930s the first large expedition of Soviet cinematographers visited Yakutia: a film group of the studio Vostokkino, consisting of Vil’gel’m Bluvshtein, Ya. Svetozarov, and N. Privezentsev. The purpose of their trip in 1931 was the creation of a feature film about life in the republic. These years form the base of cinema in Yakutia.

Soviet Yakutia (Sovetskaia Iakutiia, 1948; second edition 1952) was the first full-length documentary film by cinematographers from Irkutsk. Regular filmmaking started in the 1960s with the opening of a film-correspondents’ branch of the Irkutsk East-Siberian Newsreel Studio, where the first professional Yakut cameraman, Nikandr Savvinov, worked; he produced over 500 stories and more than 20 documentary films. Later the cameramen Nikolai Santaev worked with him, as well as Semen Vasil’ev, who made a considerable contribution to the creation of the film-annals of Yakutia.

sledy na sneguThe first Yakut actor to appear in the feature film Aerograd (dir. Aleksandr Dovzhenko, Mosfilm, 1935) was a student of drama school, Nikon Tabunasov. Then the stage actor Petr Reshetnikov played the hunter Bykadyrov in the film Traces in the Snow (Sledy na snegu, dir. Adol’f Bergunker, Lenfilm, 1955). Other actors followed suit: Spartak Fedotov in The Third Rocket (Tret’ia raketa, dir. Richard Viktorov, Belarusfilm, 1963); Afanasii Fedorov in The Flame (Plamia, dir. Vitalii Chetverinkov, Belarusfilm, 1974); Khristofor Maksimov, Spiridon Grigor’ev, Viktor Savvin, Natal’ia Khristoforova in Morning of Long Day (Utro dolgogo dnia, dir. Ada Neretniece, Riga Studio, 1968). The People’s Actor of the USSR, Dmitrii Khodulov, and the actor Anatolii Vasil’ev appeared in the film The Ancestors’ Secret (Taina predkov, dir. Marat Aripov, Tajikfilm, 1972). Stepan Emel’anov, Afanasii Fedorov, Anatolii Vasil’ev appeared to great success in the film Urgent… Confidential… Gubchek (Srochno… Sekretno… Gubchek, dir. Alesandr Kosarev, Mosfilm, 1982), which was set in Soviet Yakutia of 1921. The role of Abakayada in the film Semen Dezhnev (dir. Nikolai Gusarov, Sverdlovsk Studio, 1982) was played by Margarita Borisova. Spartak Fedotov also appeared in the film The Shaman (1996), directed by Bartabas. Thus actors from Yakutia make their way onto the screen.

During the Soviet era and until the 1990s Yakutia did not have its national cinema, but its system of film distribution and screening was the most developed not only in the Far East, but also in the RSFSR. In 1987 the republican film distribution center had collected over 22,000 prints of full-length feature films. Then came perestroika, and with it the collapse of the Soviet film service.

At this time the first professional filmmaker from Yakutia, Aleksei Romanov, initiated and organized the Creative Association Severfilm. At the time there was no opportunity for the distribution of Yakut films, but Yakut television had been established in the early 1960s and was quite developed, so the first Yakut films were broadcast on TV. In those years such television films as The Valley (Saiylyk, 1992) by Anatolii Vasil’ev and Cursed by the Earth (Setteeh sir, 1996) by Ellei Ivanov and were made and shown. They met with genuine interest and appraisal of the Yakut spectator.

Thus filmmaker Nikita Arzhakov summarizes the first steps of Yakut cinema:

Even long before the creation of Sakhafilm, in 1983, Aleksei Romanov made a short film entitled Life (Zhizn’). His film Marfa (Maappa, [short, Sverdlovsk Studio, 1986]) is considered the first film in the Yakut language. He also made the ethnographic feature film Orto Doydu. In 1985 Semen Ermolaev made the first television film Old Toy (Staraia igrushka). And we should also recall the television films The Valley and Okhonoon (1993) by Anatolii Vasil’ev, and Last Summer (Ol Saiyn, 1996) by Viacheslav Semenov, Rescue (Teleruiuu) by Gennadii Bagynanov. They have laid the foundation of Yakut cinema. (Zhirkova 2015)

In connection with this emergence of filmmakers and films, the first head of Sakhafilm, Stepan Sivtsev-Dollu, could declare the launch of the new studio:

On 23 June 1992, due to the need to promulgate moral and aesthetic values and ideals, the rise of the role of cinema in the spiritual revival of the people of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the President of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) Mikhail Efimovich Nikolaev created by Decree 176 the official “State National Film Company Sakhafilm” (Sivtsev-Dollu 2012, 47).

v poiskakh radostiWith the creation of the national film company came the staffing issue, which was resolved at governmental level: students from Yakutia were sent on the republican budget to study at the central film schools (Moscow’s State Film Institute VGIK, the Higher Courses for Scriptwriters and Directors in Moscow, and St Petersburg’s University for Film and Television GUKiT); after graduation they began to work actively in cinema. While in the former union republics film studios were closed one after another, Sakhafilm started to make feature films. The formation of the film company was therefore a major push in the development of the republic’s national cinema.

Thanks to the targeted policy of the first President of the Republic Sakha (Yakutia), Mikhail Nikolaev, the conditions for the subsequent rapid development of national cinema were created. During the 1990s, with the advent of sovereignty, the question of national consciousness and self-identification arose. At that time the situation in the country was such that the bulk of Soviet education was based on Russian, which had almost replaced other national languages from their use. The Yakut language, and with it the culture, ran the risk of disappearing. Apart from issues of screen versions of the classics of Yakut literature, the new filmmakers faced the question of the choice of a topic that would excite society at that critical time.

Talking about his film Rescue (Teleruiuu, 1992) the Yakut filmmaker Gennadii Bagynanov recalls:  

Besides, I took into account the political atmosphere in Yakutia in 1992, when our society no longer had clarity and stability. Everything was falling apart. Society had no concrete program for “perestroika”, or reorganization, and nobody knew what to do and where to go. People started talking about sovereignty... Remember how Neryungri and Mirny wanted to be separate from the republic. Chaos, in a word. But earlier, in the 17th and 18th centuries, we Yakuts underwent qualitative social changes also. A lot changed with the arrival of the Russians on the banks of the Lena. Then came different times, a different faith, other values and concepts. That’s life. Dialectics! Everything changes, nothing stays put. In the film, one of the heroes wears a Christian cross around his neck while the other, the hunter, believes in pagan idols and gods. In his yurt he has an image of the spirit that protects his house, his well-being and his happiness. Sometimes people who see this accuse me of cruelty. There is blood, true… (Doidu 1997)

From the moment of its creation, the national film company Sakhafilm implemented the order of the republic’s government, making both documentary and fiction films. Those were artistic-ethnographic, popular-science films, but also screen adaptations of classical Yakut literature, films devoted to the theme of the Great Patriotic War and other historical moments of the Yakut people.

At the beginning of the 2000s the graduates of the central film schools began to return and join the work process of Sakhafilm. In 2003 the first Yakut film was distributed within the republic’s own distribution network: My Love (Liubov’ moia, dir. Sergei Potapov). The film is successful at the box office. From this moment onward, the distribution of Yakut cinema unfolds. However, the distribution network has at its disposal only three cinemas in the city of Yakutsk, and two halls of the company Sakhafilm. Nevertheless, such a distribution made it possible for films to recoup their low budgets, which paved the way for the emergence, besides Sakhafilm, of small independent studios.

One of the first independent film studios was Almazfilm, created under the auspices of the Cinema Central (Tsentral’nyi) under the direction of Aleksandr Danilov. Commissioned by Cinema Central, a number of entertainment films enter distribution, such as the comedy Run (Kuot, dir. Konstantin Barashkov, 2005), and the horror film The Death Track (Tropa smerti, dir. Anatolii Sergeev, 2006).

Thus, a change of the film consumers (spectators) has occurred and, with it, of the purposes and problems of film production. If the customer used to be the government, giving priority to screen versions of the classics of literature, as well as documentary and patriotic films, then the new producers (acting on behalf of the cinemas) set a different agenda, namely of the film’s commercial success: they place their stakes on catering for audience taste by working within entertainment genres.

keskilAnother factor for the development of Yakut cinema was the galaxy of young actors who graduated from the Shchepkin (Theater) School in Moscow. They set up the creative association “DetSAT” (Deti Sakha Akademicheskogo Teatra), an abbreviation for Children of the Sakha Academic Theatre; this association makes and produces films. So, Detsat created the successful franchise Keskil, where the protagonist—the simple-minded guy Keskil, whom spectators have grown fond of in rendering of the actor Mikhail Borisov—all the time gets caught up in ridiculous situations with his good-for-nothing friend Vitka (Keskil, dir. Konstantin Barashkov, Dmitrii Shadrin, Aleksei Egorov, 2006; Keskil 2: The Revenge Match [Keskil 2: Match revansh], dir. Aleksei Egorov, Roman Dorofeev, Dmitrii Shadrin, 2009; Keskil 3: Fight for Inheritance [Keskil 3: Bitva za nasledstvo], dir. Dmitrii Shadrin, Aleksei Egorov, 2013).

Another example of a successful franchise are the films Heroes: Fight for the Cup (Geroi: Bitva za kubok, 2011) and Heroes 2: Tournament of the Scorpion (Geroi 2: Turnir skorpiona, 2012), directed by Vasilii Bulatov and Evgenii Pivovarov. The plot involves two children from a rural area, who have grown up on video films and imagine themselves to be the heroes of their favorite films. They call themselves by the nicknames “Jackie Chan”, “Bolo Yeung”, “Sub Zero”, and “Scorpion,” and they engage in Asian combat sports. This film, as a matter of fact, is a tribute to the importance of videos, on which the present generation of Yakut filmmakers has been raised.

chingis khanWhile independent companies have been engaged in the assimilation of various new genres, the entire state support was channeled into the most ambitious project in the history of Yakut cinema, The Secret of Chingis Khan (Taina Chingis Khaana, 2009), directed by Andrei Borisov. This large-scale historical film was shot not only in Yakutia but also in Mongolia and Tuva. The budget was $10 million USD—compared to the budget of an average Yakut film that rarely reaches one million rubles. It was the first film distributed beyond the borders of the republic. Unfortunately, it did not fulfill the expectations of recouping the production cost through distribution. However, Yakut cinematographers had an opportunity to work on a really large project and gain experience.

The year 2011 saw the release of the first film shot on a digital photo-camera (DSLR): Leaving Hong Kong (Pokidaia blagoukhaiushchuiu gavan’ [literally: Leaving a Fragrant Harbour], directed by Siuzanna Oorzhak.

Her film, titled in imitation of Wong Kar-Wai and shot in Hong Kong, actually deals with the perspective of Yakut youth over the last ten years. In brief: the heroine lives in China and feels quite at home there, wearing manga-style dresses; however, in the end she reflects that her roots are somewhere else. She leaves her beautiful Hong Kong life and returns to the land of permafrost. “We are not nationalists,” says Siuzanna, “but we know that China will soon conquer the whole world and such small people as the Evens, Tuvinians, or Yakuts will simply disappear from the face of the earth. Thanks to globalization instead of original culture we look only at pop-culture. If things continue that way, in fifty years there will be nothing left here… (Vanina 2012)

gavanThe quality of the image on DSLR is noticeably different from that of the video-camera that had previously been used by independent filmmakers. The availability of DSLR has led to a new surge in independent cinema. New names of self-taught filmmakers have appeared. In the period from 2012–2014 the largest number of feature films appeared on the cinema screens of the republic.

Yakut directors started to master various film genres. For example, in the genre of comedy the creative association DetSAT has released films by directors Roman Dorofeev, Dmitrii Shadrin, and Aleksei Egorov: Keskil; In Search of Happiness (V poiskakh radosti); Free Knights (Kenul Booturdar, 2011); Erchim and Kim (Erchim uonna Kim, 2013); Jubilee (Iubilei, 2011); #taptal (2014); Fifteen Days (Uon bies kun, 2015), etc. They have also produced actor and director Arkadii Novikov’s Davlyat with its sequels, and works of the young director Vasilii Bulatov, notably Heroes (Geroi) and the sitcom Days of Our Life (Olokh tugennere).

strayedIn the genre of drama, there are the films of directors Nikita Arzhakov (Black Mask [Khara maaska, 2003], Sakha Sniper (2010), Cranes over Ilmen [Zhuravli nad Il’menem, 2005], Marvellous Time [D’ikti saas, 2013]); Viacheslav Semenov (the shorts Motuo [2005] and The Fisherman [Rybak, 2005], and That Summer [Ol saiyn, 1996]); Andrei Borisov’s historical drama The Secret of Chingis Khan; Aleksandr Lukin’s State Children (Gosudarstvennye deti, 2015); Stepan Burnashev’s films The Fugitive (Kuruoyekh, 2014], Another Life [Atyn Olokh, 2015]), Eduard Novikov’s Envoy of Heaven (Aiyny uola, 2014) and Aleksei Ambros’ev’s Strayed (Mummuttar, 2016), as well as the social dramas Semyon (Semenchik, dir. Marina Kalinina, 2012), Smile (Ulybnis’, dir. Dorofeev, Egorov, Shadrin, 2014), Bonfire (Koster na vetru, dir. Dmitrii Davydov, 2016); and the melodramas First Love (Magnaigy taptal, dir. Stepan Burnashev, 2015), The Butterfly (Lyakh, dir. Viacheslav Semenov, 2013), and The Shore of Hope (Kytyl, dir. Ruslan Tarakhovskii, 2016).

The genre of the thriller and horror is very popular among spectators. The best known representatives of this genre are Anatolii Vasil’ev (The Valley), Ellei Ivanov (Cursed by the Earth), Konstantin Timofeev (Paranormal Yakutsk, 2012, and Barren Land [Sebinenneekh sir, 2008]), Marina Kalinina (Naakhara, 2007), Anatolii Sergeev (The Death Track), Arkadii Novikov (Love Turned to Fog [Tuman vuolbut taptal, 2004] and The Seagull’s Cry [Khopto khahyyta, 2013]), as well as Stepan Burnashev (The Bog [Kuta, 2013]; Evil Spirits [Khara d’ai, 2016]).

There are also some films in the genre of fantasy, such as Where the Wind will Be (Tyal baaryn tukhary, dir. Sergei Potapov, 2011), Chyskhaan (dir. Danil Osipov, 2015), A Magic Sound (Aptaakh doroon, dir. Aleksei Ambros’ev, 2016), and the sci-fi action films 2053 (dir. Vasilii Bulatov, 2013) and The Last Day (Butehik kun, dir. Stepan Burnashev, 2013).

podsnezhnikiRepresentatives of auteur cinema are directors Sergei Potapov with his films My Love (2016), Breathe (Tyyn, 2006), Snowdrops (Podsnezhniki, 2013), the short Doydu (2012), God Johogoi (D’ohoroi Aiyy, 2016); Mikhail Lukachevskii with The Presentiment (Bittenii, 2011), The Road (Suol, 2012), White Day (Urun kun, 2014), Secret Love (Taaiyman taptal, 2015); and Siuzanna Oorzhak with the above-mentioned Leaving Hong Kong.

In 2011 the first republican film festival “Cinema of the Arctic” took place, which subsequently (from 2013) changed into the annual Yakut International Film Festival (YaIFF). Over the years the jury of the main competition has included such well-known filmmakers as Aleksandr Adabashian, Khodjakuli Narliev and Aleksandr Mindadze. In 2016 the festival took place for the fourth time and coincided with the All-Russia Forum for Regional Cinema, which discussed the state and development of regional cinema in Russia.

The distinctive feature of Yakut cinema lies in its existence outside the developed system of the Russian film industry. Russian cinema today relies on state support, whereas Yakut cinema is made with republican means and private investments (sponsorship).

The paradox lies in the fact that, despite small budgets, limited distribution—only within the limits of the Republic Sakha (Yakutia)—and a shortage of staff, Yakut films are popular among local spectators and sometimes even surpass Hollywood films at the box office. Therefore experts call this a phenomenon and try to interpret the model of success of Yakut cinema. What is the secret of the “phenomenon” of Yakut cinema?

In my opinion, above all this is this presence of enthusiasts in the field of cinema, consisting half of professionals and half of amateurs who have independently mastered a certain specialism in filmmaking. No more than fifty people work in Yakut cinema, but they do so with enthusiasm and eagerness, and they have created what is called the Yakut film-boom.

Secondly, the technical base at Sakhafilm makes it possible to rent the necessary film equipment.

Thirdly, there is a window for distribution. Local cinemas are very loyal and insert Yakut films in the schedule instead of Hollywood films—at their own risk. Without the good will of local distributors there would be no Yakut cinema boom. At present, work is in progress on the expansion of a distribution network within the republic, and new cinemas in regional centers are being created.

Fourth, Yakut cinema has its own spectator, and this is the main thing. Without the love of the audience, all the factors listed above would have no significance.

geroiThe reason for this love from the spectator is connected with the language. All Yakut films are made in the Yakut language. A few attempts to shoot a film in Russian, which would theoretically allow them to capture a larger audience, have not justified the expectations and have failed in the republican distribution. The Yakut spectator prefers watching films in the native language and about themselves.

From here follows the factor of mentality. The people of Sakha are an Asian people living in Russia. By virtue of its geographical isolation (the remoteness of the region from central Russia), we have an absolutely unique mentality based on bilingualism, dual faith, and a mixture of cultures. Neither Russian nor Hollywood cinema can elicit in our spectator such an emotional response as Yakut cinema. Local authors raise topical issues, beginning with historical questions—who are we and where are we from—up to problems of modern society. The fact that the filmmakers are in a single information space with the spectator allows them to react sensitively to spectator expectations and speak in the same language.

So what is Yakut cinema? It is impossible to say that it is a business, since the number of the republic’s population—and therefore of potential spectators—is so small that the majority of producers merely recoup production costs, but rarely make a profit. It is difficult to call Yakut cinema an art form, since it is still in the phase of searching for forms and a visual language.
In my personal view, Yakut cinema today is a modern form of folklore, a way of national self-expression with the use of modern technologies. Film production in Yakutia often has a spontaneous character and directly depends on social and economic factors, even momentary processes in society, but at the same time it probably also influences these processes.

Today the Yakut filmmakers face the following choices:
1) To move towards business at large, expanding the distribution sector and going beyond the republic, and adapt national cinema by choosing universal themes and rejecting the use of the Yakut language;
2) To aspire upwards, in the direction of art cinema, improving the quality of films and emphasizing auteur cinema, advancing it at international film festivals;
3) To continue the path towards the self, keeping the form of national folklore, making films only for the local spectator.

It seems that the year 2016 was a significant marker in the history of Yakut cinema. The initial “wave” has passed. The films from our distant region have made their way into competitions of prestigious national festivals. Spirit of Fire in Khanty-Mansiysk showed Aleksei Ambros’ev’s film Strayed, which received the prize for Best Music, as well as an award for Best Cinematography in the competition of ethnic cinema at the 9th festival in Cheboksary; at the festival Dvizhenie [Movement] in Omsk the film Ferrum (dir. Prokopii Burtsev) and Potapov’s God Johogoi received a special mention of the jury for the courageous experiment with form. The Kazan festival of Muslim cinema showed God Johogoi, while the film His Daughter (Ego doch’, dir. Tat’iana Everstova) was invited to Vyborg’s Window to Europe and to the First Open Ural Festival in Yekaterinburg. In the documentary competition of the 38th Moscow IFF participated the film 24 Snows (24 snega), which—although filmed by a director from the capital, Mikhail Barynin—was created with Yakut finances and a Yakut creative team. The film Strayed has been released commercially in Kazakhstan, while the film Lake Saisary (directed by Kostas Marsan), dubbed into Russian with the more biting title My Murderer (Moi ubiitsa) has been released on Russian and CIS screens.

Translated by Birgit Beumers

Sardana Savvina

Works Cited
Doidu, Aisen. 1997. “Gennadii Bagynanov.” Interview.  Ilin 3–4.

Sivtsev-Dollu, Stepan. 2012.  Kinematograf Iakutii.

Vanina, Elena. 2012. “Sostoianie kino: ‘Tyal baaryn tukhary,’ ‘Balyksyt,’ ‘Aanchyk,’ i drugie iakutskie blokbastery.” Afisha Daily 23 July.

Zhirkova, Varvara. 2015. “Zritel’ posle fil’ma dolzhen zadumat’sia, naiti otvet na davno volnuiushchii vopros.” Nash universitet online 29 January.

Sardana Savvina © 2017

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Updated: 11 Jul 17